why is federalism needed in nepal
If Nepal postpones the identity criterion of federalism, the constitutional debate will be likely to be endless – merely postponing the social peace and stability. This discusses how the major Nepali political forces agreed to the broader agenda of state restructuring to achieve specific objectives but how this agenda has been narrowed down to some aspects of federalism alone over the course of time. Often, these zones are called states. One need not search far to see why this is so. Now the question is why cannot Nepal make ‘democratic principles and institutions’ as the basis of ‘nation state’? Read also: Nepal’s federal success The Constitution mandates that the governments of all three levels shall exercise the power of the state. Majority of population doesn't want caste/identity based federalism as reflected by massive loss of seats by parties like Maobadi and so called Madeshi parties in latest CA election. Isn't federalism by identity going to cause a wider divide than what already exists among the different castes of our country. Nepal’s federalism debate— as observers of the constitution process are well aware— remains one of the most contentious issues in the writing of the country’s permanent constitution.As previously written here and elsewhere, the debate is not about whether Nepal should be a federal state. The people wanted it and they were willing to fight for it. These characteristics combined to reflect the true essence of federalism. There are some fundamental factors that explain why this is the case. Federalism was introduced in Nepal at the forefront of the issue of state restructuring without discussion and debate, perhaps in all good faith. The major parties are deferring the issue in the hope that the passion for ethnic federalism will subside slowly and will enable them to work out a compromise formula for federalism. Federalism merely serves as a way of providing effective public service as fast as possible. How will the other states handle this? Identity based federalism is impossible in Nepal so I don't see that coming. Eastern Tarai and Kailali-Kanchanpur have been retained to give Pahad access to India by bypassing the Madhes and Tharu majority proposed states. This is why Federalism is required on the basis of a common identity (ethnic, geographical and lingustic) and economic viablity. Federalism is a system of government. The Democracy, however, does not function in failure of recognizing the ‘diversity’ as a basis of the unity of nation. I am guessing, (I don't know what it will be like) the currency, army and foreign affairs will be handled by the Federal government, while delegating other matters to the local level. India was thus declared as a ‘secular state’, which did not recognize any religion or culture as the ‘religion or culture of India’. Tuesday, November 3, 2020 Latest: Can there be such thing as non territorial state? The spoilers have so far played on peoples' fears by exploiting a literary snafu. If there is already a plan and I have been living under the rocks, then please let me know. Federalism is the separation of power between a more local government (in the United States these are the States) and an overarching government (the federal government). The political parties have also failed to analyze the situation from this perspective. I went to the best schools in Nepal and I went to college abroad. 400 Arab, for next four years for transitioning into federalism. Most importantly, the political parties have failed to ‘consider the restructuring mission’ from this perspective. The end is Swarajya. The federalism is therefore necessary to empower people to ‘have self-governance’. The Tharus are especially pissed because they are among the earliest indigenous groups in Nepal and have lived in their strongholds for centuries. There are two important issues to consider for ‘giving the discussion of restructuring of the state’ a definite and meaningful shape. But such a move is not that easy as Nepal is home to more than 125 ethnic groups and most of the regions have mixed populations. One of the great successes of Nepal’s path to federalism has been the quantity of financial resources that has been shifted from the central (now federal) government level to the local government level, making Nepal the most decentralized country in South Asia. The 6 … The promises of federalism in Nepal rest in this autonomy, which was seen by many as the acceptable solution to a governance system that includes such a diverse geography, demography, and society. The concept of ‘autonomy largely follow’ the asymmetrical model. Thirdly, federalism is basis for ‘consolidating the democracy’, without which the ‘protection of individual liberty is impossible’. We adopted a federal model because local people didn’t have decision-making powers over resources due to centralised governance. There are thousands of Pahadis living there, same with Janakpur, Nepalgunj, Birgunj, etc etc. Federalism is the means. Do not let the fear mongers scare you. Why can't we raise the marginalized groups of Nepal by the proposed 6 state model? Support federalism in Nepal because peace and prosperity cannot be attained without equality for marginalized groups in Nepal. Identity includes all kinds of things, from history to culture to language. “Federalism ensures division of power entrenched in the constitution which neither a member state nor the central government can alter unilaterally.” With due concern to the unfortunate Kailali event where people were killed – both security forces, and protesting people, the unitary Nepal government resisted the protest to begin with. In this model, the powers, authority and privileges of constituent provinces or states are ‘clearly outlined by the Constitution’, and thus ‘constituent provinces or states’ can possess only those powers, authorities and privileges that are clearly spelt out in the Constitution. The necessity of federal system in Nepal is clean and clear. I welcome all replies. 7. The game hatched to ‘prolong the uncertainty’ of the course of unfolding resolution of the crisis is thwarting the positive transformation of the ‘politics to progress’. The Madhesi issue has been addressed to some extent in terms of identity, but not Economic Viability. Federalism, as a form of state organization in the modern world, appears in a whole range of different varieties. Too long has Nepal been the province of one religion, one language and one identity. In Chapter 2, Seira Tamang argues that the debate on federalism is illustrative of the overall weak and limited nature of the discourse on rights in Nepal … Except for some radical, fringe elements, the Madhesis and Tharus are not demanding priority rights (agra adhikar). Another example is ‘Switzerland’. I understand these questions cannot be answered here, and today. (I realize that this might be the reason that some states have been split up. The fourth question: The answer you gave is perfect. Often times these are the same people who in the last decade were saying Nepal will disintegrate if there's no Monarchy. Last but not the least, Nepal Finance Ministry had estimated an initial cost of Rs. And if we are able to restructure the state in such a way that all Nepalis, not just Bahun-Chhetris, are satisfied, we can really utilise our potential. I am guessing you are somewhat like me and I am guessing that most Nepali redditors are like us. I am all for feredalism, with the aim of decentralization of power (geographically and demographically) and local governance. At this point the remarkable point to remember is that ‘the restructuring of the nation should be governed by two important needs, the first being the need ‘of consolidating democracy through vertical distribution of powers’, and the second being the need of ‘maintaining the secular character of the nation’. About Sundar Santa Nepal This project aims to support the implementation of federalism and inclusive peace in Nepal by building understanding around evolving forms of marginalisation in the present context. Historically, Nepal has been stubbornly ruled by an ‘elite group’ to the complete exclusion of entire population. The new republic will become a federal one. The institution of the presidency in Nepal was created with the declaration of the country as a Republic in 2008. Constitution of Nepal 2015 (Nepali Name:नेपालको संविधान २०७२) is the present governing Constitution of Nepal. It is sad to see people still talk about the abandoned idea of priority rights. I also got to live in different parts of the country like Dang, Mahottari, Panchthar and Taplejung. The determination of federalism on this ground can never mean that ‘the creation of federal unit’ on such ground is going to give a ‘special power to a group of people’. The idea of creation of provinces in any nation state is necessitated by the need of ‘vertical distribution of the powers’, which in turn is necessary to ‘consolidate the democracy and prevent the circumstance of central authority as despotic nation or tyranny’. Nepal is governed according to the Constitution which came into effect on Sept 20, 2015, replacing the Interim Constitution of 2007. That federalism will create ethnic tensions is propogated by those who oppose Federalism. Should we take a few isolated incidents and define an entire community and movement based on it? And yet, I identify with the struggle for identity and representation. The diversity of the population, culture, geography is gradually marching towards adversely affecting the unity of the country. The restructuring policy therefore must give due attention to such issues. The concept of ‘ethnic federalism’ with a sense of special privilege to a group at the cost of exclusion of others is defective on the basis of principles of democracy as well as ‘integrity’ of the nation. It means dividing a nation up into various zones. Obviously, there is no danger to ‘determine the basis of federalism’ on such sentimental grounds. Federalism is thus necessary to transform Nepal into a ‘nation state’, belonging to every Nepali equally. The federalism therefore is not a ‘concept of dividing the nation into communal units’. Pahade migration to Madhes is increasing. To see from this perspective, the scheme of federalism must be agreed by all population, and its characters need to be set forth by consensus. How is it going to benefit their communities and how is it going to affect the different people of other castes who live within these delineations? Article 159(1) of the Tnterim constitusion declares that Nepal is a federal Democratic Repulic state. ... Continue browsing in r/Nepal. potential to generate 82000 megawatts of electricity; but, so far, only 700 megawatts is being generated. I think /u/BiseNagarchi can provide a better answer to your queries, but let me try. Powerful countries may put Nepal in a trap and force it to choose sides, but it has to play a cohesive role and balance its relations from all sides. However, the independence movement utilized this development as a boon to oust the ’empire’, as the colonial domination educated ‘Hindustani’ of the importance of unity and necessity to fight for independence emerging above the ‘regionalism’. Why Nepal needed to divide itself into states (provinces) and how the number of states were defined? Federalism is not a Janajati plot or a Madhesi plot. However, I feel like not much thought has been put into a geopolitical change of this magnitude in Nepal. This scheme thus made ‘democracy’ as the basis of ‘unity of various civilizations, languages and ethnic diversity’. Nepali politicians are not honest. People who are labelled pahades are already fearing for their lives and leaving the terai because of this. The Maoists' proposal of federalism was later adopted by many more mainstream parties because of the diversity of Nepal… Now, whether those leaders lived up to their promises is another issue altogether. How do we provide states for 80+ ethnic groups? It might be a ‘history’, culture, language, civilization, unique character of geography, and so on. However, the outer core, that is the structure of federalism, is not taking shape. Finally, the federalism is a means of ‘promoting the individual liberty and freedoms’. I don't like to believe this but this is how I feel. If not, they can easily collude and perform trade with any one state and completely ignore the others. But I don't get why it should be based on one's caste/identity. Until not very long ago, I too was for more decentralization and economic growth as the be all end all. Let us study them. An online junction for Nepali dai, bhai, didi, bahini and friends all over. I've seen many users here are proponents of identity based federalism. I am a privileged Chhetri, I was born and raised in Kathmandu and I am comfortably middle-class or even upper middle-class. The map as drawn- the other thing that is obvious is the distrust by the Pahade establihment of the Madhesis, see the silver of Parsa and Nawalparasi cut off from the Madhesi regions. Without consensus the ‘scheme of federalism’ might be a source of conflict among people. Another important issue relates to ‘demarcation of the geographical boundaries of provinces’. The inner core of federalism, as defined in the Interim Constitution of Nepal (2007), and further refined in the Constitution of Nepal (2015), seems to be accelerating, albeit still at a slow pace. Very good points. And it arose because of centuries of being treated as second-class citizens. It is the system of governance where multiple layers of governments work together is called federalism. The agreement was that states would be carved out on the basis of IDENTITY and VIABILITY. The map as drawn excludes these areas of econimic activity from the Madhes. Nepal has to remain pro-neighbours and maintain good ties with the US, too. To see from this perspective, the scheme of federalism must be agreed by all population, and its characters need to be set forth by consensus. This is why Federalism is required on the basis of a common identity (ethnic, geographical and lingustic) and economic viablity. There is no way to get rid of anyone who lives near you. There is hope for education in Nepal. These things weren't taken into account. Features of Federalism. Federalism came up as a potential solution to the nation’s regional imbalance in regards to development, unemployment, and poverty. Swaraj is being able to choose your government and bureaucracy and police who understand you better from among yourself. Bahun-Chhetris are okay with it because they benefit. That’s why we don’t have enough electricity for the entire nation Firstly, the political parties must be aware and clear on ‘the principle of federality’. We also need to realize that we need full cooperation of India for this to work. The right to self-determination of a group within a nation thus must be understood as a right to ‘socio-economic and political empowerment’ as an essential population constituent of the nation. Rai is a researcher at the Centre for Social Inclusion and Federalism (CESIF) Nepal. What kind of control will the Federal Government have over the states? One of the most important principles to consider while creating provinces is the ‘sentiment’ of the people. Shouldn't we just accept our flaws and make peace/improve instead of marking territories? The breakdown of law and order is serious. It comes from the west which has had a different social-economic-theological and scientific evolution over millenia than us. Leaders of all hues touted federalism as the best alternative to ensure Nepal’s prosperity. The third question, I have tried to answer it in the top somewhere. A recent UN report states that between 2000-12, Nepal’s economic growth stood at 2.7 per cent per annum — a rate that surpasses the average population growth rate of 1.7 per cent, but well below Nepal’s average GDP growth rate of 4 per cent in that period. The best way to comprehensively understand the federal system is to learn about its features. However, the creation of a province, without any sentimental connectivity, might be doomed to function or ’emerge as a unit of the state’. The 6-7 state model does not solve either. As Bhupi Sherchan once said we Nepali are "Bhedas" and don't use our brain but rely on some illiterate asshole with political background to think for us. The federal system of government is where a country is divided up into several different regions, each of which is able to govern itself, to some extent. Finally, the federalism is a means of ‘promoting the individual liberty and freedoms’. If everyone gets a quota, then what's the point of the quota? We already have problems tracking criminals in the country. Okay, the thing that you and most other redditors here seem to misunderstanding, either willfully or inadvertently, is that no one wants identity-based federalism. Let's say all of us can stop killing each other and decide the states, what then? Is there a mechanism to collaborate for development plans at the state and Federal level so that they don't clash against each other? Are we going for the Indian model of Federality? The constitutionalization of the recognition of cultures, languages and other attributes of population is the only basis of the ‘unity of Nepal’. Nepal (English: / n ɪ ˈ p ɔː l /; Nepali: नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a sovereign country in South Asia.It is mainly in the Himalayas, but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.It is the 49th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. But- they are in province #1, not #2. The President of Nepal serves as the nation’s head of state. What do people think is going to happen when identity based federalism passes? They are not demanding solely identity-based federalism; they just want identity to be due given importance, especially since their identity has been subsumed under the Gorkhali Hindu Nepali-speaking Bahun-Chhetri identity for so long. And I am sure the majority of the marginalized people in the country want the Federal System. ... Why do we need directly elected MPs in federal parliament if we have federalism? And the aggrieved groups have been betrayed time and again. However, while doing so, the question as to why ‘the province’s boundaries are set in that shape’ must have a clear answer in the minds of the people. It was the most prudent ‘vision’ of Ghandi and other leaders. You might cite Pahadis leaving the Tarai after the Madhes Movement as an example but have you been to the Tarai recently? The constitution does not ensure adequate representation for marginalised groups in any level of the state. All they have is a blind notion that federalism is a panacea. Federalism thus cannot be a prelude to ‘a movement to secede’ the nation. Prior to British colonial consolidation, India as a nation was not in existence. Nepal’s 2015 Constitution provides a federal structure, but in practice decentralization is being stalled. The ‘constitutionalization of the heterogeneity of culture, languages and other similar attributes with a view to prevent the state being autocratic, discriminatory and monolithic power center, and to ‘consolidate the freedoms of people with all powers to rule themselves democratically’ are the basic needs for ‘restructuring the Nepali state’. Over the last one year, the crisis is mainly deepening owing to obstinate decline to understand the ‘gravity of the problem’. 800 Arab for the development of basic infrastructure to start federalism in Nepal, while World Bank estimates 3-4% of Nepal’s GDP per year, which comes to be another Rs. The essential feature, which is the definition of federalism is that there are two levels of governance in the country at least. The scheme of the restructuring should therefore adopt some principles as indispensable elements for national integrity. People who look alike, speak the same language and live in the same geographical area will come together to decide on their needs, means and action plan independent of Kathmandu. Some provinces in Canada can enjoy only those powers, authority and privileges that are ‘outlined by the constitution’. Finally, the federalism is a means of ‘promoting the individual liberty and freedoms’. At one point they said that they will give non territorial state for "Dalits". Don't want to argue too much but according to latest election, most of the people are against federalism by identity. What they want is a state where they receive adequate representation, where their language and culture are recognised, where they get to make decisions on their own and not some Bahun-Chhetri bigwigs in Kathmandu. It is so because ‘the democracy does not allow to ‘exclude people’ on any ground. Nepal’s federalism debate— as observers of the constitution process are well aware— remains one of the most contentious issues in the writing of the country’s permanent constitution.As previously written here and elsewhere, the debate is not about whether Nepal should be a federal state. Does it mean that Madhesis are not welcome in their own capital? Canada has adopted ‘both symmetrical and asymmetrical models. Did not get to spell check or check for grammar and redundancies in my points, but I have tried to answered u/nepaliredditor. Its become seven states, in case you haven't been following. USA has followed this model. “We have abundant resources of water in Nepal,” Gurung explains, “We have the . The President Of Nepal. Do clear few points for me : Why were the Madeshis community and the Tharu community displeased with the 6 state model? I also got to live in different parts of the provinces implementing the of. 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The abandoned idea of priority rights ( agra adhikar ) children away for better education from perspective. Much dependent on for goods clash against each other and decide the states be... Peace process began of decentralization of power ( geographically and demographically ) and growth. ( not including bahun-chhetri ) okey with it towards adversely affecting the unity the... Or seven state model is repackaged five development Regions, except state 2!
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